1 a headlong rush of people on a common impulse; "when he shouted `fire' there was a stampede to the exits"
2 a wild headlong rush of frightened animals (horses or cattle)
1 cause to run in panic; "Thunderbolts can stampede animals"
2 cause a group or mass of people to act on an impulse or hurriedly and impulsively; "The tavern owners stampeded us into overeating"
3 act, usually en masse, hurriedly or on an impulse; "Companies will now stampede to release their latest software"
4 run away in a stampede
Etymologyestampida (in America) a stampede, estampido a crackling, akin to estampar to stamp, of German origin.
- A wild, headlong scamper, or running away, of a number of
animals; usually caused by fright; hence, any sudden flight or
dispersion, as of a crowd or an army in consequence of a panic.
- She and her husband would join in the general stampede. -W. Black.
- To run away in a panic; said of cattle, horses, etc., also of armies.
- To disperse by causing sudden fright, as a herd or drove of animals.
To disperse by causing sudden fright, as a herd
A stampede is an act of mass impulse among herd animals or a crowd of people in which the herd (or crowd) collectively begins running with no clear direction or purpose. Stampedes are believed to originate from biological responses in the brains and endocrine systems of herd animals. The response is believed to have evolved to help animals escape predators.
A large stampede will frequently eliminate anything in its path. In farmed animals, herd managers, sometimes called cowboys, attempt to turn the moving herd into itself, so that it runs in circles rather than self-destructing by running over a cliff or into a river, or from damaging human life or property by overrunning human settlements.
Specific animals associated with stampede behaviour are cattle, elephants, Blue Wildebeests and wild horses.
Human stampedesThe term stampede, also known as a crush or trampling, commonly describes a sudden rush of a crowd of people, usually resulting in many injuries and death from suffocation and trampling. Human stampedes most often occur during religious pilgrimages, professional sporting and music events. They also often occur in times of mass panic, as a result of a fire or explosion, as people try to get away.
The annual Muslim Hajj in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, which is attended by millions of pilgrims, has increasingly suffered from stampedes and other disasters, even as authorities have constructed new walkways and instituted other traffic controls to prevent them. The worst documented stampede in modern history happened at the 1990 Hajj, when over 1400 people died in a tunnel.
List of human stampedes
- 10 October 1872: 19 women and children were killed in a stampede and resulting stairs collapse in a synagogue in Ostrów Wielkopolski during the feast of Yom Kippur. Failure of gas lighting engulfed a synagogue balcony in darkness, causing panic among women.
- May 30 1883: 12 are killed and dozens injured after a woman trips on the stairway at the Brooklyn Bridge, open for eight days. The crush was exacerbated by fears the bridge was about to collapse.http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=980DE3DA1431E433A25752C3A9639C94629FD7CF
- May 18, 1896: Khodynka Tragedy: 1389 people killed, 1300 injured in a crush desiring to get presents during Russian Tsar Nicholas II coronation.
- January 11, 1908: Barnsley Public Hall Disaster: 16 children killed during a stampede in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, England, when someone in the hall shouted 'Fire!'
- December 24, 1913, Italian Hall Disaster: 73 people were crushed to death in Calumet, Michigan. This event is considered the legal source for the often-cited First Amendment limitation, "You cannot shout 'Fire' in a crowded theater."
- January 1, 1956, New Year of Yahiko Shrine Disaster: Progressing new year event that panic and stampede at Yahiko Shrine, Yahiko, central Niigata, Japan, killing 124.
- December 3, 1979: 11 killed during a crush at a The Who concert at Riverfront Coliseum in Cincinnati. The incident led to a reduced use of festival seating at US venues. The event was later portrayed offstage on WKRP in Cincinnati.
- October 20, 1982: at least 66 killed in Luzhniki disaster
- May 29, 1985: 39 killed in the Heysel Stadium disaster
- July, 1990: 1426 pilgrims killed in al-Muaissem tunnel in Mina, Saudi Arabia during the Hajj.
- January 1, 1993: 21 people were killed and 48 injured as huge crowd celebrate the New Year's Day at Lan Kwai Fong of Hong Kong.
- October 30, 1993: 73 student fans injured, six critically, by a crowd crush shortly after a football game at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Camp Randall Stadium.
- May 1994: 270 killed at Jamarat Bridge in Mecca during the stoning of the Devil.
- October 16, 1996: 82 killed, 147 injured on a steep stadium stairway prior to a World Cup qualifying match between Guatemala and Costa Rica in the Estadio Mateo Flores in Guatemala City.
- March, 1998: 70 killed when fans at Nepal's national soccer stadium stampede for the exits during a hailstorm.
- April 1998: 119 killed at the Hajj in Mecca.
- May 30, 1999: 53 people die in a stampede at the Nemiga metro station in Minsk, Belarus.
- April 11, 2001: 43 crushed in the Ellis Park Stadium disaster.
- May 2001: 126 killed at a football match in Accra, Ghana after police fire tear gas at rioters.
- February 6, 2003: 21 killed in the stairway exit to E2, a nightclub in Chicago, after a pepper spray use on an upper-story dance floor.
- February 20, 2003: 100 killed in The Station nightclub fire, many of them trampled.
- February 2004: 251 killed at Jamarat Bridge in Mecca during the stoning of the devil.
- January 2005: 265 killed as Hindu pilgrims stampede near a remote temple in Maharashtra, India.
- August 31, 2005: 1000 possibly killed in a Baghdad bridge stampede
- December 2005: 42 killed as flood relief supplies are handed out to homeless refugees in southern India.
- January 12, 2006: 345 killed at Jamarat Bridge in Mecca during the stoning of the devil.
- February 4, 2006: 74 killed in the PhilSports Arena stampede in the Philippines. The place was the location of the first year anniversary of ABS-CBN's Wowowee.
- September 12, 2006: Fifty-one killed and more than 200 injured at a stampede in Ibb Governorate, Yemen.
- June 2, 2007: Twelve killed during a stampede at the end of a football game between Zambia and Republic of Congo in Chililabombwe, Zambia.
- October 3, 2007: At least 14 women crushed to death at a train station in northern India.
- November 11, 2007: 3 killed and more than 30 injured at the Supermarket Carrefour in Chongqing, China when the shop was offering 20% discounts on cooking oil.
- March 27, 2008: 8 killed and 10 injured at Indian temple during pilgrimage.
stampede in German: Stampede
stampede in French: Bousculade
stampede in Croatian: Stampedo
stampede in Dutch: Stormloop
stampede in Portuguese: Stampede
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